Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Human Resource Management in the Public Office Essay Is cash the most significant impetus device in the open division? Is execution based compensation a compelling method to persuade representatives to be progressively beneficial? Talk about the positive and negative advantages related with broadbanded pay frameworks. The open area for the most part manages the monetary and managerial conveyance of merchandise and enterprises from the administration to the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s individuals. Such a job requires genuine responsibility to support and to the target of improving the general government assistance of people. Besides, local officials maintain such duties with a special arrangement of needs that are not fixated on material and monetary benefits yet rather on what their capacities and accomplishments could add to othersÃ¢â¬â¢ advancement. This perfect may simply separate local officials from individuals from the work power that render their administrations for benefit. This in thought, money related prizes may not be the top need of local officials yet it is unquestionably a viable motivation device across areas from private to open. A method of allowing motivator to workers is through execution based compensation. This pay plot involves compensation increments and remunerating of rewards to representatives that had the option to accomplish or outperform the objectives identified with their extent of work. Under such a plan, workers become increasingly propelled to create great assistance with the ultimate objective of delivering clearly positive outcomes. Simultaneously, since such a plan requires, that the compensation increment be defended by the model execution of the worker, there would be less occurrences of increments and advancements made on the insignificant premise of workplace issues. When it gets apparent to representatives that they presently have an equivalent playing field, this would moreover rouse them to substantiate themselves deserving of acknowledgment and impetuses. In accordance with compelling human asset the executives, open divisions are creating broadband compensation frameworks, which basically actualize expansive compensation reaches to groupings shaped based on like obligations while keeping up high adaptability so as to take into account the requirements and requests of a various workforce. Such compensation frameworks may present the two favorable circumstances and weaknesses to the workers and offices. A case of favorable circumstances to the representatives is that the technique for gathering may give a chance to their situations to be renamed to a higher evaluation as showed by the multifaceted nature and broadness of their duties. This would likely work in the kindness of a worker who handles a few undertakings that are typically performed by more than one individual in certain workplaces. Another preferred position is for the piece of government workplaces on the grounds that by using high innovation and productive data frameworks to actualize the broadband compensation instruments, an improved information gathering strategy will be set up and procedure will be organized. This would eventually prompt progressively handy and effective utilization of accessible human and monetary assets, and enormous aggregate investment funds for the legislature. Then again, an inconvenience for the organizations could be that arrangements on work orders or groupings may expect them to unveil to worker's guilds touchy data that may result to operational security concerns. By what means can an association use worker benefits as a feature of its enrollment and maintenance endeavors? By what means can an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility to learning bring about lower laborer turnover? How do issues identified with representative advantages and learning influence specialist execution? Human asset is the best resource that any foundation might have. Consistently, an extraordinary number of associations and foundations ascend or disintegrate by the greatness or average quality of their workers. Actually, any foundation may utilize the most ideal advances and may even be in the most unique and dynamic industry however all these would not make the business a triumph if without gifted and handy workers. Therefore to guarantee the most ideal enlisted people and the ability to hold the most prepared and regarded gifts, associations manufacture appealing pay bundles and representative improvement programs. By supporting representatives under these advancement programs and with alluring prizes, associations plan to keep the devotion of their ability pool and include newcomers that have a similar inclination and aptitudes. Every one of these means are taken by associations under the information that all representatives would base their boss inclinations that take into accou nt their requirements and development the most. Besides, these requirements and development desires must be interpreted as meaning money related advantages as well as more significantly how the association could enhance oneÃ¢â¬â¢s gifts and permit the person in question to boost possibilities. So as to support its ability pool, associations may select their representatives to different classes that instruct or additionally set up the information that they have identified with the undertakings that they act in the workplace. Through these classes, workers build up a feeling of satisfaction and fulfillment since they find that they can tap in to a greater amount of their possibilities. Therefore, with the information that there are more things that they could learn and do, they find that they additionally have more to offer the association that they are a piece of. By permitting their representatives to develop into high likely people, associations not just keep their workers faithful and their turnover rates low, they additionally gain from the advanced gifts and aptitudes that their HR apply in their everyday work. An organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s spending on preparing and advancement programs for its representatives is a piece of its human asset venture. Likewise with items sold in banks or financial exchange, or acquisition of types of gear by creation organizations, costs brought about by associations identified with worker preparing are recognized with the desire that they will deliver comes back to the association by method of improved representative exhibitions that lead to better working procedures and accomplishment of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s vision and mission. Pershing, Stolovitch, and Keeps (2006) further help the connection between worker execution and learning by expressing that the last permits the workforce to turn out to be progressively associated with the association through an expanded information on how better he could be of administration, and that the sustaining procedure offered to these representatives permit them to be more ready for changes and increasingly open to process enhancements. Basically, all representatives are commonsense people in that they remain in the association that welcome them the most and prize them adequately for the nature of work that they render. It is with this information that associations assemble dynamic representative advantage and maintenance programs. These associations know very well that workers perform best being worked on and reward programs that offer all encompassing development. Such development relates to a few factors in the lives of a person. Investigate the distinction in ending laborers in open associations versus privately owned businesses? What at the ramifications of voluntarily work for open segment laborers? One of the significant contrasts between open associations and privately owned businesses is the goal or strategic which their workforce works. As set up before, open part laborers can be to a great extent considered as volunteers for social, monetary, and even political causes though the workforce of privately owned businesses are for the most part there for productive additions. This at the top of the priority list, the minor idea of a reduction in the workforce in the open area represents a few difficulties since it may not be simple for the association to drop by community workers who are eager to work for a similar reason. One manner by which the workforce of any establishment is diminished is through worker end. End is the procedure by which the association ends an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s enrollment or administration to the association without wanting to. There are different reasons why end is forced on a person. It might be that the worker has abused certain authoritative strategies or moral gauges, or rendered inadmissible employment execution, or may even have been on the grounds that the person had a contention with their manager. Then again, the representative may likewise be dependent upon end when the organization experiences a rebuilding stage that required scaling back in its workforce, or if the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s duties have been seen as repetitive. Worker end happens in both open and private workplaces yet there are some eminent contrasts. One such contrast is that representatives of privately owned businesses are frequently recruited under agreement while those working in open workplaces are regularly utilized freely, implying that they don't have a conventional business contract restricting the person in question and the business. Albeit all workers are secured by work laws, representatives in the open division are increasingly defenseless against end on account of the voluntarily idea of their business.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Antiquity histories are a way to deal with material culture that features the moving implications of curios after some time. Antiquity histories give the item meaning, usefulness, imagery and recognize social movement (Waller-Cotterhill, C. Antique Biographies). It is essentially the life of curios that were previously, and which are as yet being flowed around for a long time into the future. As the antiquities get more established the more parts and qualities are added to the narrative of it after some time (ARA1001 module handbook: p 17). These are legacies we get from our grandparents. Legacies are not generally of financial worth, however it likewise has a story behind every single antique. Composing a memoir encourages you reveal the shrouded stories and estimations of antiquities. As per Joy (2009), there are two parts of composing the life story of an item. The main strategy is called Ã¢â¬ËLife HistoryÃ¢â¬â¢, where you investigate the historical backdrop of antiquities as one. The subsequent technique is called Ã¢â¬ËBiographicalÃ¢â¬â¢, where you investigate an antiquity of the topographical and sequential request (Joy 2009). We will compose a custom article test on Relic Biography as an Approach to Material Culture or on the other hand any comparative subject explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page I will utilize the Ã¢â¬ËBiographicalÃ¢â¬â¢ technique in this composition, to deliver the life of an item, in this relic biography.Every family has a lot of family legacies, which has been passed down from age to age. In my family, I have three family treasures Ã¢â¬ a hairpiece, a lot of familial adornments and a ring, went somewhere around my Grandma Alice, Grandma Anita, and my grandpa, respectively.I decide to disclose to you the story and estimation of the delightful hair piece left by my Grandma Alice Ã¢â¬ my fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s mother. My grandmother, Alice Mariah is British. She was the main little girl of one of the GovernorsÃ¢â¬â¢ designated to Ceylon (Sri Lanka) when Ceylon was under the British. Around this time, my distant grandpa was a Chieftain of three towns, who administered it with a firm hand. He additionally happened to have an unmarried child (my grandpa). The British Governor (likewise my distant grandpa), who needed to frame a collusion with the Chieftain, masterminded a marriage between his girl (my grandmother) and the unmarried child of the Chieftain. The GovernorÃ¢â¬â¢s little girl, Alice Mariah, showed up at Ceylon three months before the wedding. As indicated by grandmother, it was unexplainable adoration. She became more acquainted with his folks and acclimated to the way of life before the wedding. She carried with her an excellent Silver hairpiece (see Fig. 1), given to her by her mom Ã¢â¬ who got it from her relative, Alexandra-for she was leaving to an obscure land for eternity.
Sunday, August 16, 2020
Other Hallucinogen Use Disorder Symptoms Addiction Drug Use Hallucinogens Print Symptoms to Diagnose Other Hallucinogen Use Disorder By Elizabeth Hartney, BSc., MSc., MA, PhD Elizabeth Hartney, BSc, MSc, MA, PhD is a psychologist, professor, and Director of the Centre for Health Leadership and Research at Royal Roads University, Canada. Learn about our editorial policy Elizabeth Hartney, BSc., MSc., MA, PhD Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on August 05, 2016 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on August 13, 2019 Diverse Images/Getty Images More in Addiction Drug Use Hallucinogens Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Ecstasy/MDMA Opioids Prescription Medications Alcohol Use Addictive Behaviors Nicotine Use Coping and Recovery Other Hallucinogen Use Disorder is a diagnosis which is documented in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM-5. The Other in the title distinguishes the hallucinogens causing the disorder from phencyclidine and pharmacologically similar substances, which has its own disorder, known as Phencyclidine Use Disorder, and cannabis, which also has its own disorder, Cannabis Use Disorder, which also includes the psychoactive ingredients of cannabis such as THC. The drugs associated with Other Hallucinogen Use Disorder include phenylalkylaines, such as mescaline, DOM, MDMA or ecstasy, the indoleamines including psilocybin and psilocin, which are the psychoactive ingredient in magic mushrooms, DMT, the ergolines such as LSD or acid, and morning glory seeds. Various other plant compounds with hallucinogenic effects are also included. Symptoms The diagnosis of Other Hallucinogen Use Disorder can be given to an individual who takes hallucinogens of the types specified above, and exhibits at least two of the following symptoms within a 12 month period: The person takes more of the hallucinogen than they intended to.The person has difficulty cutting down or controlling their hallucinogen use.The person spends a lot of time getting, using, and recovering from hallucinogens.The person craves hallucinogens.The person fails to carry out major roles in their life at work, school or home, because of their hallucinogen use.The person continues to use the hallucinogens, even though they have social or interpersonal problems, such as arguments, as a result of their drug use.The person gives up or reduces other activities that were important to them, such as social, work-related and other recreational activities.The person uses hallucinogenic drugs in dangerous situations, such as driving or operating machinery.The person continues to use hallucinogens even though they know it is causing or worsening a physical or psychological problem.Tolerance for hallucinogens. Are Withdrawal Symptoms Part of Other Hallucinogen Use Disorder? No. Unlike many other Substance Use Disorders, withdrawal symptoms are rarely, if ever, part of the picture. There does not appear to be a physical withdrawal syndrome when the drug is not taken, although there is a very pronounced tolerance for the drug, which develops over a short period of time. The drug will cease to have much effect if taken repeatedly, which often leads hallucinogen users to discontinue the drug, at least for a few days until the drug is intoxicating again. Therefore, if you seem to be experiencing withdrawal symptoms after taking hallucinogens, it is likely that you have either been taking another drug either instead of or in addition to the hallucinogen (drugs are often cut with other drugs that are cheaper or more easily obtained, such as amphetamines), or you are mentally or physically ill, which can develop during or after a period of drug use. Seek medical assistance as soon as possible. One exception to this rule is MDMA or ecstasy, which shares many of the characteristics of stimulants, and does appear to create withdrawal in 59-98% of ecstasy users. However, this would not be a criterion for Other Hallucinogen Use Disorder, even if you had been taking ecstasy because ecstasy falls within the hallucinogen class of drugs. It would also make sense to rule out Stimulant Use Disorder in case you have been inadvertently taking stimulant drugs. This can be detected in a urine screen which your doctor can arrange, and if you have Stimulant Use Disorder, your doctor can help with detox to ease the associated discomfort of Stimulant Withdrawal.
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Are 50Ã¢â¬â¢s teens able to survive the hurtful but unavoidable transition of becoming a grown up as they struggle with the changes that come along with it? JD. SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s 1951 book, The Catcher in the Rye, shows us how society treated their confused and changing teenagers during their transition into adulthood. The bookÃ¢â¬â¢s main character Holden Caulfield is being pressured into growing up even though he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel ready, to lead an adult life. He is still struggling socially and mourning for his deceased brother whose death turned Holden upside down and into a negative, hopeless person from a young age, which causes him to be distracted, indifferent and to flunk every school he goes to. Therefore, Holden Caulfield seems to be dealing with a world that is forcing him to change his ways and grow up because of his age while he struggles with his past, present and future, in this JD Salinger classic. Thesis Statement Brainstorm: 1- SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s main character Holden, is seen to be struggling with his past, present and future in The Catcher in the Rye. 2- Holden is seen to be having unspecified negative thoughts about growing up throughout JD SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s famous The Catcher in the Rye. 3-JD SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Catcher in the RyeÃ¢â¬â¢s main character Holden Caulfield seems to be dealing with a world that forces him to change his ways because of his age and what itÃ¢â¬â¢s expected from him while he is struggling with his past, present and future. Theme: StrugglesShow MoreRelatedHolden Caulfield s The Catcher Of The Rye1416 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIt is evident that the protagonist, Holden Caulfield suffers from depression due to the death of his younger brother, Allie in The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger. Due to AllieÃ¢â¬â¢s death, HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s actions elicit his own views of the world and the Ã¢â¬Å"phoniesÃ¢â¬ around him. Ã Holden has tunnel-vision to living a simple, happy life and isolates himself from those around him who understand the concept of growing up. Salinger uses a hat, a museum, and a merry-go-round to illuminate HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s emotion, theRead MoreHolden Caulfield s The Catcher Of The Rye1213 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s protagonist, Holden Caulfield suffers from depression due to the death of his younger brother, Allie. AllieÃ¢â¬â¢s premature passing elicits HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s cynical views of the world and the Ã¢â¬Å"phoniesÃ¢â¬ around him. Ã Hol den isolates himself from those around him in order to shy away from the complexities of life. Salinger uses a hat, a museum, and a merry-go-round to illuminate HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s inner turmoil with people, the notion of adulthood, and growing up. Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreAn Analysis Of Holden Caulfield s The Catcher s The Rye 900 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesstory The Catcher in the Rye the 16-year-old protagonist, Holden Caulfield, experiences a conflict that makes him want to relive his childhood memories. Holden has so much hatred toward the adult world and he thinks adults are very phony and lame. J.D Salinger delves into the mentality of a boy that hates adult intimacy and sexuality. Holden ends up in a mental institution to recover from his problems and to overcome his fear of adulthood. This novel is set in the early 1950s and Holden is from NewRead MoreAn Analysis Of Holden Caulfield s The Catcher s The Rye 1941 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesenough; one cannot appreciate the blissful innocence of childhood until it has passed. The novel, The Catcher in the Rye, explores the complex and often incomprehensible transition to adulthood through the experiences of the protagonist, Holden Caulfield. J.D. Salinger uses HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s character to express the challenges teenagers must overcome in order to adapt and succeed in an adult society. Holden outlines the challenges he is experiencing through this time of development by striving to preserve childhoodRead MoreCharacter Analysis Of Holden Caulfield s The Catcher Of The Rye 1733 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe novel The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger, Holden Caulfield is faced with multiple Ã¢â¬Å"phoniesÃ¢â¬ that divert him from those he really holds affection for. Throughout the novel Holden shows disgust for certain characters but his ability to build relationships of intimacy are most eminent. Through Allie Caulfield, Holden is able to make a more personal connection. Seeing as how he is now dead, Allie is a savior in the eyesÃ¢â¬â¢ of Holden when he is in the time of need. Phoebe Caulfield, HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s tenRead MoreHolden Caulfield s The Catcher Of The Rye1493 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJerome David SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, The Catcher in the Rye, describes Holden CaulfieldÃ¢â¬â¢s journey to understand the complexities of growing up and his purpose. In the beginning, he is in a mental hospital somewhere near Los Angeles and is writing about this Ã¢â¬Å"madman stuffÃ¢â¬ to a psychoanalyst. Holden flunked out of Pencey Prep and leaves his dormitory to go on a journey around New York to find his way through post-war New York society. At the same time, he is suffering from depression and is on the vergeRead MoreHolden Caulfield s The Catcher Of The Rye824 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Catcher in the Rye Symbolism Essay J.D SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s Catcher in the Rye, is the story of Holden CaulfieldÃ¢â¬â¢s loss of faith in society, and in particular adults. Salinger uses a number of symbols to demonstrate HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s rebellion against the phony facade of society and his desire to preserve the innocence of children, especially those he loves. Chief among them is HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s misinterpretation of Robert BurnsÃ¢â¬â¢ poem Ã¢â¬Å"Comin throÃ¢â¬â¢ the RyeÃ¢â¬ , wherein Holden mistakes the original line, Ã¢â¬Å"If a body meet aRead MoreHolden Caulfield s The Catcher Of The Rye1928 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesIn The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger, Holden CaulfieldÃ¢â¬â¢s story is seemingly aimless and without any sense of direction. However, Salinger brings the novel into focus in the final chapters by introducing the idea of being the Ã¢â¬Å"Catcher in the RyeÃ¢â¬ from the poem by Robert Burns. Salinger chose the name Ã¢â¬Å"Catcher in the RyeÃ¢â¬ for the title of his novel, but why? The a nswer is that Salinger wanted to emphasize the connection between Holden, the main character, and the cryptic Ã¢â¬Å"Catcher.Ã¢â¬ Holden confessesRead MoreAnalysis Of Holden Caulfield s The Catcher Rye 1308 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesscratch, while others perish into the rubble. The same can be said for Holden Caulfield, the protagonist of J.D. SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s novel The Catcher in the Rye, a teenager that suffers and wallow in his misery behind the sceneÃ¢â¬â¢s, yet lives a life of luxury and debauchery for all to witness. Psychoanalytical theory operates as a catalyst in analyzing and understanding Holden Caulfield in the narrative of The Catcher in the Rye. Holden is introduced as a defeatist, juvenile youngster that has just failed outRead MoreHolden s Influence On Holden Caulfield s The Catcher s The Rye 846 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesforces that interact with one another greatly. For example, in The Catcher in the Rye, these two influences affect Holden Caulfield significantly. They have a large impact on how he views the world and other people. Whilst Holden Ã¢â¬Å"served the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose: to scrutinize the cruelties and banalitiesÃ¢â¬ of society, The Catcher in the Rye remains a work that may helps others understand the path to happiness (Coles). A concept Holden had observed from the start of the novel was the materialism and egotism
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
The Character Brett Ashley in Ernest HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s The Sun Also Rises There is a common perception among casual readers--who hasnt heard it voiced?--that Ernest Hemingway did not respect women. The purpose of this essay is to examine one work in such a way as to challenge these heinous assumptions. Hemingways persona will be left alone. What will be examined is the role of women, as evidenced by Brett Ashley in The Sun Also Rises, and what, if anything, it reveals in the way of settling this account of Hemingway as misogynist. Brett Ashley enjoys a unique position of power in the novel--in todays vernacular, she wears the pants in all her relationships. The feminist perspective, no doubt, will find this true, but rapidly moveÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦His love is unconditional. Mike, nor Robert Cohn, nor the former Lord Ashley loved her unconditionally. They had Brett wrapped in all types of chains. It is against this regressive mind-set that Brett fights. They all want to own her. But, not Jake. And Jake as narrator is Hemingways nearest relative. Jakes voice is hardly distinguishable from Hemingways own. Given that, Id say the author invented an arch-type of modern man in Jake Barnes. Jake is the friend you can count on. Hes the guy, who if he were alive today, would memorize Bly and bang drums in the woods under a full moon. Hes sensitive. Speaking of sensitive, what is the reader to make of Jakes faulty machinery? The feminist in me screams, Thats the only reason Jake acts the way he does, because hes been neutered in war. Excuse the graphic nature of this, but Jake is still a man with two hands and a tongue. Having children never enters into the equation. Bretts no Mommy. In other words, I reject the notion that Jake is less a man for his injury. He is, it fact, a better man. The Sun Also Rises is a seminal work from a writer at the peak of his skills. Hemingway, like his narrator, Jake Barnes, does the work of a journalist. The novel serves as a field report for the societal changes brought on by the Great War. The role of women in the culture was very much on the minds of thinking people. It was on Hemingways mind, and he wrote about it eloquently throughout hisShow MoreRelatedErnest Hemmingway: Shifting Gender Roles in The Sun Also Rises782 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesErnest Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899 in Chicago, Illinois. Hemingway was an American author and journalist. Kemen Zabala author of Ã¢â¬Å"HEMINGWAY: A STUDY IN GENDER AND SEXUALITYÃ¢â¬ states that Hemingway was commonly known for portraying the sterile and disillusioned environment created by the massive human loss of World War I. Perhaps his exposure to the atrocious nature of war as a Red Cross ambulance driver in the Europe during World War I aided and further influenced his literar y capturing ofRead MoreThe Story Of The Lost Generation1661 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescarefree life like the characters in The Sun Also Rises do sounds like fun but it isn t what it seems. Ernest Hemingway writes a piece of literature that when looked upon through a new historicist critical perspective exposes the underlying truth and an uglier reality that is normally suppressed presents itself. New historicist criticism in a nutshell is arguing that the literature is directly influenced by the time period and place in which it occurs, but The Sun Also Rises also reflects the attitudesRead MoreThe Sun Also Rises by Ernest Hemingway1195 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespowerful aspects of a book. For instance, when a reader reads the title The Sun Also Rises, written by Ernest Hemingway, the reader is able to understand that the title of the novel is connected directly to the message that the author is attempting to convey. The title later brings forth much more significance towards the very e nd of the novel when the reader pauses and contemplates HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s motives. The title The Sun Also Rises has the ability to stimulate deep thought within a reader, thus forcingRead MoreThe Dependence On Futility : An Analysis Of Brett Ashley1004 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDependence on Futility: An Analysis of Brett Ashley In The Sun Also Rises, Ernest Hemingway employs metafiction to reveal the nature of World War One and its effect on individual ideals. Narrating the novel from the first person perspective of the protagonist, Jake Barnes, Hemingway clearly contrasts between fiction and reality. Although the reader has a limited perspective on the events in the novel, the lack of emotional connection between the characters becomes evident and expresses the underlyingRead MoreAnalysis Of The Sun Also Rises By Ernest Hemingway1289 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesin which Germany proposed a military alliance with Mexico. The telegram was a blatant attempt to bring The United States into World War 1 by Germany, and it succeeded. Once the United States entered the war, fresh young faces like eighteen-year-old Ernest Hemingway lined up to fight for their country. Sadly Ã¢â¬Å"An eye problem barred him from the army, so he joined the ambulance corpsÃ¢â¬ which allowed him to aid in the war effort overseas (Levine 79 5). Less than a year later while attending to Italian soldiersRead MoreEssay on Robert Cohns Struggle for Respect in The Sun Also Rises798 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesRobert Cohns Struggle for Respect in The Sun Also Rises Ã Jake Barnes: Youre not an aficionado? Spanish waiter: Me? What are bulls? Animals. Brute animals... A cornada right through the back. For fun-you understand. (Hemingway, 67)Ã Ã Ã Why does everybody hate Robert Cohn? At the beginning of Hemingways novel, The Sun Also Rises, Jake Barnes, the storys point-of-view character, wants us to believe that he has at least some appreciation for Cohn. He relates some of Cohns life for usRead MoreAnalysis Of The Lost Generation1411 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"You are all a lost generationÃ¢â¬ , said Gertrude Stein to Ernest Hemingway in a casual conversation in Paris. The phrase then came to characterize an entire post-war generation of the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s which sets the premise of HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s iconic novel, The Sun Also Rises. After World War I, society quickly began questioning their traditional ideas of justice, faith and morality. The men and women affected by the aftermath of the war became physically, psychologically, and moral ly lost. This group of people wasRead MoreTransformation In Ernest Hemingways The Sun Also Rises1298 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesErnest HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, The Sun Also Rises, is a story that may seem underwhelming to the average audience, for to them the characters seem linear and are full of cliches, the story builds up to an anticlimactic ending, and it makes the reader contemplate the whole point of the adventure. But to the person with a palette for literature, The Sun Also Rises is everything but a bore; it is a ride of emotion, symbolism, progression, and character development, adding to that an ending that leaves theRead MoreThe Sun Also Rises By Ernest Hemingway1918 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesZach Ullom Eng-125F-SO2 Dr. Les Hunter December 3, 2015 Brett Ashley: Whore or Heroine in The Sun Also Rises After a thorough reading and in-depth analyzation of Ernest HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s riveting novel The Sun Also Rises, the character of Brett Ashley may be seen in a number of different ways. While some critics such as Mimi Reisel Gladstein view Brett as a Circe or bitch-goddess, others such as Carol H. Smith see Brett as a woman who has been emotionally broken by the world around her. I tend lean towardsRead MoreThe Sun Also Rises : Jake Barnes Ernest Hemingway - a Comparison3277 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesHemingways The Sun Also Rises Jake Barnes Ernest Hemingway Ã¢â¬â A Comparison Ã¢â¬Å"Hey, Kitty, said Ernest, Im taking your advice. Im writing a novel full of plot and drama. He gestured ahead towards Harold and Bill. Im tearing those bastards apart, he said. Im putting everyone in it and that kike Loeb is the villain.Ã¢â¬Å" - Hemingway (Baker p.234) Table of contents: 1. Setting, Characters Background 2. Impotence War Wound 3. Women 4. San FermÃ n 5. Interests Characteristics Bibliography
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(41) " it will be time to decide on the means\." One of the most hotly debated topics going on now is the one concerning the ethics of assisted suicide and euthanasia. Nowadays with all the progress that the medical profession has gained, people who are terminally ill have more options, and there have been continued efforts to give them the Ã¢â¬Å"right to dieÃ¢â¬ when they choose this option. I was interested in researching this topic because I think the debate has a lot to do with politics. We will write a custom essay sample on Ethics of Doctor Assisted Suicide or any similar topic only for you Order Now This dilemma has been hotly debated and I was open to seeing how this movement was progressing. In the beginning, I was a proponent on this issue, and believed people should not be denied their wishes when they wanted to end their pain. However, I was open to learning more about the opposite stance and what the reasons for opposition were. It always seemed unusual to me that suicide was not illegal, but it was illegal to assist in one even with a consenting party. I wondered how this could be, and how people could deny people this right in unending pain. There never seems to be a prosecution of doctors who participate in these acts, even though they frequently go to court. I wondered why this occurred and what the laws really said regarding this. I also wondered how people distinguished between forgoing medical interventions and actually assisting in the suicide. As I approached the research, my main questions were regarding the opposition. I really did not know all the problems that could occur. Research about this brought to light many things that are not discussed in the media, although this is a highly publicized subject. I found that it is very difficult to end the debate because all the arguments are just matters of opinion. Opposers and protestors have good arguments. No one really knows what would happen, so opinions are used to predict it. Since all the media attention, I will try not to discuss the many things that are already known. I found myself intrigued at what I did not know, and found my views profoundly affected. After reading current articles about what was going on legally and about cases, reviewing the history of this topic, and reading books showing the two opposing viewpoints, I have made my conclusions. I will show how people are currently handling this and how they are being viewed. I will discuss the main arguments on both sides. Finally, I will show what I concluded from this and how my views have been altered by information that I did not know before. I will begin by explaining how the terms are defined. Euthanasia derived from Greek roots and means Ã¢â¬Å"good death. Ã¢â¬ Active euthanasia is a direct and deliberate intervention to kill the patient. It is Ã¢â¬Å"intended to end the life of the competent, terminally ill patient who makes a fully voluntary and persistent request for aid in dying. Ã¢â¬ Voluntary euthanasia takes place when the patient requests the action and it is involuntary if the patient is not mentally competent enough to make the right choice. Passive euthanasia is withholding treatment from a patient. A physician-assisted suicide occurs when the patient does the actual act, but the physician provides either enough information or the means to do it. One source defines it as a Ã¢â¬Å"desperate measure, justified only in exceptional cases where every effort has first been made to care for a dying person by other means. Ã¢â¬ The terms euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide usually are used for the same thing and are not generally distinguished from one another. Typically the means of suicide is lethal doses of a poison such as pills, an injection, or gas. Motive causes euthanasia to be distinguished from murder, because its intent is merciful and is done out of kindness. The physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s intentions can make considerable differences concerning how their act will be classified. The most common reason for a patient to want this aid is a terminal illness. Unbearable suffering has caused the person to become intolerant of the physical and/or emotional pain. The other reason is a physical handicap that is debilitating and the patient would rather die than live with it. Most people are able to cope with this, but in some cases, it is impossible for the patient to do so. In ancient times, euthanasia was encountered often. However, suicide was condemned. During the sixteenth century, some people began to see it as more of a personal choice. It eventually became decriminalized, but assisted suicide and euthanasia are still crimes in most countries. The introduction of powerful analgesics caused a rise in the interest in the Ã¢â¬Å"right to dieÃ¢â¬ movement. It was advocated in the late 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s, and has been a topic for debate since the early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s. Doctors have been helping patients die for centuries. Some cultures today have people that will stop eating and wait to die when they become seriously ill. The Ã¢â¬Å"right to die movementÃ¢â¬ is encouraged by several factors. Modern technology has come along to extend human life. The fear of the dying process is of great concern to some people, especially when it accompanies physical and psychological suffering. Patients are becoming more in charge of their own fate and have more of a voice. Finally, there is a concern about the high health care costs. They cost more than 60 billion annually, and 1/3 of Medicaid payments go to patients in their last year of life. MedicineÃ¢â¬â¢s main goal has always been the preservation of life. Now, this is being challenged in an attempt to change it. The two sides of the issue are being debated. On one side are the people who think it is not a physicians place to kill a patient, because he/she should only help, not harm. The opposition thinks that suffering is the real harm. The debate comes at the point of the onset of the terminal illness, when it will be time to decide on the means. You read "Ethics of Doctor Assisted Suicide" in category "Essay examples" This is sometimes called the Ã¢â¬Å"Kevorkian moment. Ã¢â¬ Proponents give examples of people who could be helped, while opponents give counterexamples of people who may be harmed. There are many moral and legal considerations. The support for a physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s participation is increasing. According to opinion polls, about 60% of people in the U. S. are supporters. About 15% of physicians practice it when it is justified. It is actually impossible to know for sure how much takes place because incidents are usually kept secret to avoid prosecution. Most people who have reported that they would consider it give reasons such as that they would not want to be a burden, would not want to live in pain, or would not want to depend on machines or others. The main argument for the support of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide is that people should have the right to control their life and death, and should be able to end their lives when they wish if they are suffering needlessly. It is argued that it is a private choice and society has no right to be concerned. They usually portray it as a case of individual liberty. One source states Ã¢â¬Å"euthanasia, if legalized, would be the ultimate civil liberty, since it would secure the freedom to determine and to control our own death. Ã¢â¬ Physicians must then decide if they are willing to take part in either directly killing the patient or by assisting the patient in suicide. The physician should follow the demands of the patient, even if it means killing them, because that would respect their wishes and the rights of the patient. Physicians treat patients with the purpose of restoring health. If the patient canÃ¢â¬â¢t be restored to a reasonable level of living, it shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be wrong to discontinue it. Euthanasia supporters often try to get sympathy by relating stories to make one feel like suicide is the only option in their case. The media has sparked a lot of interest, and continues to show stories like this. Simi Linton, psychologist, says, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m disturbed at how the media treats it, as: here are these poor folks; letÃ¢â¬â¢s help them end their livesÃ¢â¬ (qtd. in 1). It makes it seem as if would be inhumane to deny anyone this option. Basically, it is the quality of life that is the main concern of the patient. They may feel that life is not worth living in their state. It would not be humane to insist that every means be taken to keep someone alive. A physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s main concern is to relieve suffering, so sometimes there is only one way to achieve that goal. At the time that efforts are no longer doing any good, the main concern is to make the patient comfortable and alleviate symptoms such as pain. Drugs do not always get rid of all the pain, especially when it is excruciating. Sometimes a patient will be drugged into unconscious with severe pain that cannot be controlled. This does not seem like effective pain management to me. I do not believe people will be satisfied living in such a state as that. They would want to be put out of their misery. Legalization would cause many changes. It would give rights to the person who does it, rather than the person who dies. It is about the right to kill, rather than the right to die. 9 Physicians would need to be trained in more areas regarding this, such as information about medications and dosage, and about the mentality of the patient. They will need to gain expertise in understanding patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ motivations for requesting it, assessing their mental status, diagnosing and treating depression. The medical profession is developing greater expertise in managing terminal illness but would need to develop similar expertise in responding to requests for physician-assisted suicide. The debates over assisted suicide have forced clinicians to be more aware of what can be done to relieve suffering. Doctors are improving palliative care and their own behavior. Patients are becoming more aware of their options. The problems associated with legalizing assisted suicide are usually not talked about when the proponents make their argument. The discussion of the potential for abuse, the ways it could be prevented or better helped are put on a backburner. The main argument against legalization is that human life is sacred, and it is not a human right to take it away. Some say that there is no need for suicide, because health care should resolve all problems and pain management has come a long way. Most people who commit suicide suffer from depression, so it is often debated whether this could be the reason for someone wanting assisted suicide. Often, when their depression is treated, the patient responds well, and would like to live. A regular physician cannot make the determination of whether a patient is suffering from depression. This is something that is difficult to diagnose in terminally ill patients. Just because a patient request suicide does not mean this will be an appropriate solution. Sometimes, a patient may even request suicide, but when the time draws near, they change their mind because it did not seem so imminent before. The will to request the suicide must be voluntary, but this decision is left up to the physician. How can a physician judge whether it is voluntary or not? It is also difficult to determine what terminal is. When people say that it should be reserved for people who are terminally ill, they cannot define it. It is used to mean someone whose death will occur in a relatively short time. Some people may say that if they will die in 6 months it is considered terminal, but it is difficult to determine exactly how long someone has to live. They may live much longer than that. A person could also be terminal who is in a vegitative state, but will live for years in that state with continued medicine. People cannot reach an agreement on what the definition of terminal would be, some even say old age is terminal. Marianne Smith, Program Development Director of the Death with Dying National Center defines it as Ã¢â¬Å"an illness in which there is no chance of recovery and that death is imminent. Ã¢â¬Å"15 Activists of euthanasia use the demonstration that suicide is the only means to control unbearable pain. Most pain is supposed to be able to be eliminated, or greatly reduced. Many people do not get enough pain control. 6 One reason is the underknowlege many physicians have about this, and that they are afraid the patient will become addicted. Also, too much pain medication can cause symptoms that may be worse than the disease was itself. One source says that Ã¢â¬Å"patients and physicians alike may be unaware of the options available in the medical system, including advances in pain control that could help patients but are not routinely provided. Ã¢â¬Å"3 There may be no solution to these problems, but some things can be done. Better health care education, more access to health care, and informing patients of their rights. 6 Everyone has the right to pain relief. Patients should get adequate health care, and not killed. Physicians argue that if good care of the dying is being provided, then a request for suicide would be rare. 4 Some patients may want to consider suicide, but are incapable of administering medicine. Some people may also lose their mental capabilities, and will be unable to request it. It is difficult to assess fairness in cases like these. Some people use a form of advance directive and make their request before deterioration occurs. It is hard to extend the same rights to all patients without causing abuse. If someone is unable to communicate their request, it would be frightening for someone to make that decision for them and to say that their life is not worth living, so we must kill them. There is great potential for abuse if it were to be legalized. Depressed people, elderly, and very frightened people would be greatly affected. People may feel pressured into giving up. Elderly are especially vulnerable to this. Now that there are more people living longer, this problem will increase. They may tend to feel they are a burden on their families, or are selfishly consuming resources. If a physician advocates it, they also may be swayed. People may also feel distrustful of the physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s advice. This may cause a hardship in getting appropriate care. 10 Legalization will only encourage more people to take part in it. It does not seem as if we would be ready for this to occur, because we are only just beginning to explore some realms of the medical world. It took a long time to figure out about adequate care for many patients and when is the right time to withdraw life support, so it would not seem that we would be ready for this step. The Ã¢â¬Å"slippery slopeÃ¢â¬ argument is used by opponents, saying that legalization will lead to involuntary euthanasia. My own opinion is that if assisted suicide were legalized, we may not be as inclined to advance medical progress and knowlege. It would seem easier to just put the patient out of his/her misery. They may not use their experience to increase what we know about medicine and learn how to help the illness, or better cope with it. Proponents have said that euthanasia should be considered Ã¢â¬Å"medical treatment. Ã¢â¬ If this is so, there could be great potential for abuse. Then it may be more likely to be administered to people who cannot make the request. Some decisions that have gone to court say that assisted suicide is a constitutional right and that someone else can make the decision for the patient. If direct killing can be legalized by someone else, someone who is not competent could be euthanized without ever expressing that wish. It seems to be inevitable that patient are going to be killed without permission if legalization occurs, even with rules about consent. The main argument of how abuse of the practice could occur is called the Ã¢â¬Å"slippery slope argument. Ã¢â¬ It says that Ã¢â¬Å"even if particular acts of killing are sometimes morally justified with particularly pain-ridden patients, sanctioning practices of killing would run serious social risks of abuse, misuse and neglect. 3 The bad consequences of legalization would occur over time as this practice became more used. Another potential form of abuse lies in the fact that it would be cheaper to euthanize a patient than to continue medical treatment. It is thought that it could become a means of health care cost containment. Some of the main supporters of euthanasia are people concerned about lowering health care costs. 6 Religion has caused many people to debate it. Most churches are adamantly opposed to the idea of suicide. However, some Christians believe that God would not want them to suffer. 9 Although most religions and churches disagree with intentionally killing a patient, many people who hold this stand will allow the withdrawal of life support. It is believed that there is a difference between killing and letting die. Someone who is against euthanasia may agree with letting someone die who is being kept alive solely by life support that is not really helping them. 3 People feel that the intent in these cases is different. The more accepted approach does not involve killing. One interpretation of the difference shows that the intent is different because actively killing is aiming at death, and withdrawing support simply accepts that we are limited to help the dying and cannot reverse the process. 8 However, some peole believe that since death is the outcome no matter what, there is no moral difference between them. Another matter of intent distiction regards what is called the Ã¢â¬Å"double effect. Ã¢â¬ A physician will administer a pain medication to relieve pain, but knows that it may cause death. The patient would be in pain without it, but it may cause death if it is administered. It is usually believed to be moral if the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s intent is to relieve the suffering, and not to cause death. It is allowed if the death is foreseen but not intended, because it is the intent that makes it wrong. Although suicide is no longer a crime, giving assistance in it is, everywhere except for Switzerland, Germany, Norway, and Uraguay. In Australia, a law was passed that allows terminally ill patients to ask for assistance by injection or taking drugs themselves. 7 There is a debate about it because Parliament wants to overturn the statute, which is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s only voluntary euthanasia statute. In the Netherlands, it is actually a crime, but it has been ruled that physicians may assist in death under certain conditions. Some of these are that the patient must be ruled competent, and two doctors must conclude that the patient has less than 6 months to live. 8 The United States has used them as an example to see what would happen if it were to occur here. They are having problems with it, mainly with abuse. The physicians there have reported that the main reasons people request it are Ã¢â¬Å"low quality of life, the relatives, inability to cope, and no prospect for improvement. 0 Some sources show that people are requesting it for physical symptoms that it is almost ridiculou that they would go to such an extreme measure for. I think that the potential for abuse here may be great, because it is getting out of hand over there. People are becoming afraid to go to hospitals because euthanasia is becoming so commonplace. It now accounts for 15% of deaths. 1000 unconsenting deaths occur each year. 1. In 1994, the state of Oregon passed a ballot that gives limited physician-assisted suicide legality. This makes it the first in the nation to do so. A doctor must determine the patient has less than six months to live. A second doctor must decide that they are mentally competent and not suffering from depression. The patient must request it in writing with two witnesses, and then 48 hours before the doctor delivers the prescription the request must be repeated orally. 1 It must be a voluntary act. However, those jugements are left to the physician. So far, it has never been put into action. Other states are considering similar legislation, such as California which has proposed a law that is similar to the guidelines that the Dutch have adopted. Lawsuits in Washington State and New York were ruled by the 9th and 2nd U. S. Circuit Courts of Appeals that laws prohibiting physician-assisted suicide are unconstitutional. The legal fate will be determined by the Supreme Court. In 1990, the decision of Cruzan v. Missouri Department of Health resulted in people having the right to avoid unwanted medical treatment, including food and water. 5 It recognized the right to terminate unwanted medical treatment even when death would be the result. 14 People often use the Constitution as a basis for argument. The 14th amendment prohibits the state from depriving Ã¢â¬Å"any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. Ã¢â¬ So to deny a dying patient medical assistance when requested is to Ã¢â¬Å"threaten this patientÃ¢â¬â¢s request for help is judged denial of constitutionally protected due process. Ã¢â¬Å"4 As the courts were in session to hear a case about whether terminally ill people have a constitutional right to physician assisted suicide, demonstrators sang and picketed outside a Supreme Court building. The emotions of the rights issue has been compared to that of abortion. Both of these issues dig into whether we have the right to choose such personal issues. People can feel very strongly about the issues of mercy killing, whether they oppose or support it. The lack of laws cause people to avoid prosecution for assisting in a suicide. Kevorkian has escaped prosecution because there is not a state law prohibiting it, according to a Michigan judge. 9 People are afraid that activities such as his would become widespread if assisted suicide were legalized. His actions have been opposed not because of the assistance, but because he had no real relationship with his patients and had not given them any kind of clinical evaluation. Many were also not terminally ill. 3 It seems to show what is lacking in the medical sysytem, or what could become of it. Every case of assisted suicide is not convicted or prosecuted, even in states that make it illegal. However, the fact that there are many landmark Ã¢â¬Å"right to dieÃ¢â¬ cases, shows that the law is commited to the prohibition. However, the procedures are not described as killing. If this were the case, the act would have to be justified similar to killing someone out of self defense. 4 It is hard to define the conditions that there must be in order to make it legal, because there is so much that we do not know. For euthanasia to be ethical, there must be certain guidelines. The person must be a mature adult, and has been shown to be mentally competent and willing to make the decision. Some medical help will have already been given, and it should seem that the fight is hopeless. 9 Many organizations have beliefs on this and they try to educate the public on euthanasia and what their views are. I contacted Marianne Smith, the Program Development Director of the Death with Dignity National Center. 15 She explained to me in e-mail how the organization feels about euthanasia and what they do to educate the public about it. The organization is working toward better health care for paients. She feels that assisted suicide should be legal, but that Ã¢â¬Å"physician-assisted dying should be the response of last resort,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"when all other options fail to relieve unbearable suffering, when the patient is acting on his or her own initiative, is not clinically depressed, and is capable of administering the medication personally. The people who could be elgible are Ã¢â¬Å"only terminally ill, competent adults with decisionmanking capacity. Ã¢â¬ I also asked whether euthanasia could be avoided with adequate pain medicine. Her response was that Ã¢â¬Å"Physicians, medical associations and hospices all have stated that not all pain can be controlled. Ã¢â¬ Their view, which is one I encountered a lot, is that the medical professionals have not been trained adequately in pain management. Regarding the issues of potential Ã¢â¬Å"slippery slopeÃ¢â¬ abuse, she says that physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s aid in dying is more common than people realize, and legalization would just make it happen openly, instead of secretly. However, the state regulation should provide strict guidelines and penalties for violations. I think that it is hard to make sure that the decisions are correct, so it should be carefully thought out. We are dealing with a very serious issue, which is death. It should not be an easy decision to make or to carry out. Becaue death is the consequence, the decision to kill oneself, and carrying it out should be very difficult and carefully thought out. This would help ensure that people have thought about it enough and know that this is the best decision. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know how a solution can be thought of to deal with the debate, but things such as more health care education and informing patients of their rights should be a consideration. I hope that if legalization ever were to take place, that they would carefully restrict who qualified for euthanasia. After all my research, most of my questions have been answered. It is difficult to come to a conclusion because there is no right or wrong answer. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know how anyone can determine what should be done. Who can put a price on life and say who has the right to die? The basic choice is whether to let doctors help people die, and if so, how? I have found many great arguments either opposing or protesting this issue, which has led me to my conclusions. When I began this paper, I dove into it thinking that I was going to condone the idea of assisted suicide. I knew I could convince someone that it should be the moral and legal thing to do. I could not imagine a life without the ultimate choice or having to endure great suffering. I was going to defend this side, but also show the opposing side. Once I got into the research, I found many facts that I had not known before about why it has not yet been legalized. Many questions and opinions showed me that there were things I had not even bothered to think about before. What a surprise to me that I could begin a project as a supporter, and then turn around my views. I now see where the opposers are coming from. There are just too many problems and considerations to think about before this could ever happen, and there are alternate solutions. I cannot say that this has given me a complete turn in the opposite direction, but I am definitely leaning toward the opposing side except in extreme circumstances when nothing could ever help the patient. How to cite Ethics of Doctor Assisted Suicide, Essay examples
Monday, May 4, 2020
Question: Discuss About The Spending And Preparedness Financial Sector? Answer: Introducation Before implementing a BYOD policy, Aztek must carefully scrutinize both the business and security implications of the project. This policyis regulated by various legislative measures and controls described in the Freedom of Information Act 1982, Archives Act 1983, and also the Privacy Act 1988. These regulations govern the BYOD implementation criteria in an organizationand the relevant legal control measure to oversee the policy. These legislative regulations were necessary due to the liability risks marketing from adopting a BYOD policy in an organization. To ensure thesuccess of the BYOD project, the ICT management team of Aztek must develop a BYOD strategy, determine the implications of the project on any potentially existing BYOD, identify related legislation and regulations, communicate the organizations BYOD policies, and the relevant financial and technical support measures. Develop a BYOD strategy In order to successfully implement a BYOD strategy that compliments the business structure of Aztek, it is crucial to carefully formulatea strategy that is tailored to the needs and activities of Aztek. A strategy is importantso as to clearly analyze the risks involved and the appropriate measures (Ghosh, Gajar Rai, 2013). The absence of a strategy might create a situation whereby BYOD policies are employee driven. To developing a BYOD strategy for Aztek, the ICT team under the guidance of the management will conduct a pilot trial of a few employees in a low-risk section of Aztek. A review of the pilot trial using clearly defined success measures will provide Aztek management with an overview ofthe projects security implications, its cost-benefit relevance, and the impact on Azteks business activities. Existing BYOD framework In today's technological culture, it is likely that there exists an authorized or unauthorized BYOD framework in any organization. Aztek must first determine the possible BYOD existingprior to the implementation of the strategy. This information can be obtained from Azteks employees and other relevant stakeholders. A review of the organizations assigned devices can also help in mapping out the existing framework and implement the new strategy in a complementary manner. Legislations and Regulations According to the Information Security Manual (ISM) by the Australian government, it is important for any organization to seek legal advice before allowing employees to access the organizations systems using their personal devices so as to carefully understand the legal issues and liabilities imposed by a BYOD strategy. Communicating the Organizations Policy Aztek must carefully determine how to implement the policy in a manner that will facilitate employees compliance and support. Among the most effective ways ensure user compliance is by involving all relevant stakeholders in developing and implementing the BYOD policies (Lebek, Degirmenci Breitner, 2013). This will ensurea policy that is complementaryto the business and workforce structure of Aztek, employee motivation, and that the needs of all affected parties are met. The management of Aztek can alternatively offer BYOD as an optional strategy rather than mandatory.In order to ensure full awareness, the policy must be communicated to all departments, employees, and stakeholders. The policy must clearly highlight the authorized devices, the organizational data that they are permitted to access, authorized applications and software, storage and distribution regulations, non-compliance repercussions, and the controls that the managementis obligated to enforced to ensure the success o f the BYOD strategy. To ensure the compliance of all employees and to prevent legal liabilities, the employees of Aztek will be required to sign an Acceptable Use Policy that stipulates their authorized behavior and consequent repercussions of any violationsof the policy. Technical Support In developing a BYOD strategy, it is necessary for Aztek to determine the technical support implications of the strategy. A BYOB strategy would result in awide variety of personal devices with different operating systems, manufacturers, configuration settings, and electrical layouts. It would, therefore, be ineffective to assign Azteks IT support desk with the responsibility of managing the devices. Possible solutions for Aztek include issuing a list of approved devices or providing basic technical training to the employees. Financial Support The main aim organizational goal of Aztek is to ensure shareholders wealth maximization and making profits. It is therefore important to consider the financial implications of a BYOD strategy before its implementation (Seigneur et al., 2013).This includes concerns about expenses from internet and connectivity while at Aztek or outside the office, personal devices provided by Aztek, and the relevance of these expenses in helping accomplish Azteks organizational goal.All this will be dependent on Azteks budget, financial resources, and necessity of the BYOD strategy to the organization. Impact of the BYOD Project on Security In todays modern environment, it is challenging for any organization to adapt. This challenge is especially crucial to financial service organizations such as Aztek. Financial service institutions face high data security risk and management obligations. The situation is worsened by the increased level of competition among financial service organizations (Gustav Kabanda, 2016). These institutions manage the sensitive financial information of their many clients. Implementing a BYOD strategy, therefore, imposes a huge risk on Aztek and other financial service institutions. The security of the customers sensitive financial information is put at risk of loss or even malicious manipulation when employees are authorized toaccess to this information from their personal devices. The management of financial institutions is often faced with a dilemma of improving the customers security and meeting the auditors requirements on the one hand and increasing organizational efficiency and customer r elationson the other hand (Vijayan, Hardy, 2015). To mitigate the security risks as a result of a BYOD strategy, Aztek can specifically assign authorized devices to a regulated number of reliableemployees. By controlling the specific business and employees, Aztek can ensure security and efficiency of its financial services. With the continuously growing number of mobile devices, it is important for financial institutions to implement BYOD policies that are complementary to the organizations. This is particularly crucial for financial institutions in the modern age. A survey by IDC revealed that a huge number of financial institutionsare exposed to risk related to employees personal devices (Burt, 2014). The institutions do not have relevant strategies and policies to govern the use of mobile devices, applications, and mobile security concerns for their employees. In order to address the security concern, Aztek must first evaluate the impact of a BYOD strategy on the organizational goal of wealth maximization. The organization should then formulate efficient methods to govern employees personal device use, authorized data and content, applications compliance, privacy, and general security. In addition to enforcing these policies, Aztek may consider seeking the professional servicesof solution providers such as ATT and the likes. These solution providers are specialized in providing BYOD solution, formulation of policies, risk assessment, and control measures to assist in the management of the policies. It is important to realize that technological evolution is inevitable(Guan, 2012). Aztek should, therefore, strive to leverage the advances in technology to its own benefit.This can be achieved by carefully planning a BYOD strategy under the current of future advances in devices, mobile networking, and application management. The need for the management team to implement a robust BYOD strategy is further emphasized by the financial data risks faced by Aztek. Although BYOD presents many opportunities and benefits to an Aztek, it also exposes the organization to various security threats and risk as outlined above. Studies have shown that most breaches on the securityframework of organizations are adirect result of using personal devices to access the organizations sensitive data(Keyes, 2013). Therefore, Aztek must enforce appropriate measures to maintain integrity and confidentiality,ensure compliance by the employees, manage the security risk, and preserve the availability of sensitive data in a secure manner. Some information when placedin the wrong hands may cause substantial damage to the organizations, clients image, operational complications, and even financial loss. Risk Assessment Aztek faces various vulnerabilities, threats, and consequences of a BYOD strategy. This report will analyze the risks based on the devices selected for the BYOD strategy, potential malicious programs or applications, insecure user engagement, unauthorized access, sensitive data exposure, loss of BYOD devices, and the loss of informational integrity. Devices selected The first thing for Aztek to consider in the risk assessment are the personal devices that the organization will authorize to access Azteks sensitive information (Suby, 2013). This assessment will include the device manufacturers, operating system platforms, and security features in the respective devices. Azteks assessment team must also determine the security threats imposed by each of these devices. Information on the merits and demerits of all authorized devices should be availed to the employees along with strategies to cope with any security issues that may arise as a result of the devices (Watkins, 2014). Malicious Programs There are a wide variety of malicious applications designed to steal, modify, or sniff sensitive information. As users interact with their devices, they often tend to customize the devices or access the internet for work-related and personal use. This exposes their devices to an attack by malicious programs that may access the sensitive operations information in those devices (Chin et al., 2011). A risk assessment is, therefore, necessary to determine possible infection avenues and ways of tackling the risk. Aztek may consider limiting application downloads to only trusted and authorized markets, ensure installation of malware prevention programs, and sensitive the users on the security threats, mitigation procedures and ways to avoid infection (Felt et al., 2011). User Engagement Risk arises based on the operational behavior of employees as they interact with their personaldevices (Mansfield-Devine, 2012). Insecure behavior may expose the devices to malware attacks or inadvertent leakage of sensitive information (Ballagas et al., 2004). Aztek is especially vulnerable due to the sensitivity of the financial services it offers. This risk assessment aims to determine the employees level of competency in handling sensitive organizational data from their personal devices. Unauthorized Access BYOD poses a major threat to Azteks information as a result of unauthorized access. Unlike organizational devices which are safely protected and managed by Azteks security team, the security of personal devices, especially outside the office, is solelyto the user (Keyes, 2013). This poses the risk that an unauthorized third party may obtain access to the devices and Azteks sensitive data. Employees must be sensitized on security measure to prevent unauthorized access. Sensitive Data Exposure Under a BYOD strategy, employees can access and distributeAzteks information from multi-points and in different locations. This exposes the information of this financial institution to manipulation and unauthorized use. The variety of devices also complicates the process of controlling data access and applying security measure to monitor the access, use, and distribution of Azteks sensitive information. Loss of Devices It is easy for employees to lose devices containing sensitive information. The devices might contain financial information, private documents,sensitive emails among others. Such information when used maliciously may damage Aztek reputation and its clients. Sincea misplaced device exposes Aztek to various critical risks, appropriate measures to manage the vulnerability should be put in place. Aztek may introduce tools to manage all personal devices remotely (Oppliger, 2011). With these tools, the IT team should have the relevant access to remotely lock lost devices or even wipe them clean if the need arises. Informational Integrity A defining characteristic of any BYOD strategy is the seamless integration of work and personal environments (Song, 2014). As the users interact with their personal devices on both environments, they expose Aztek to the loss of data integrity. A user may alter crucial information by mistake while interacting with the devices for personal use. It is therefore important for Azteks management and ICT team to provide security measures to avoid accidental alteration of Azteks information. Data Flow and Security The final part of this report analyzes the data flow and security risk of implementing a BYOD strategy.BYOB poses a privacy concern to Aztek. While in the process of obtaining work-related information from a personal device, its likely that the organization may accidentallyobtainthe users personal information (Garba et al., 2015).The Australian government has set out rules and regulations governing how organizations can store their clients sensitive information such as bank account details, social security numbers, drivers license among others (Downer Bhattacharya, 2015). Aztek must, therefore, determine how these regulations affect their BYOD strategy. The organization must determine the legally authorized information that its employees can store on their personal devices. Employees must likewise be sensitized on the governing laws and prohibited by way of a written agreement from storing such information.There also exists laws that require financial institutions to securely destro y or encrypt sensitive information regarding their customers such as financial reports or medical records (Moyer, 2013). In conclusion, a Bring-Your-Own-Device (BYOD) strategy bring various benefits and opportunities that will help Aztek achieve its organizational goal. The opportunity, however,presents the organization with various security and privacy risk. 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